20 May 2018

Clauses of contrast, purpose and reason

Grammar points » B1 

Clauses of contrast

although, even though

We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.
  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.


We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.
  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

despite / in spite of

Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 
We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of the fact that.
  • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 

Clauses of purpose

to + infinitive

The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.
  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.
  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

so that + clause

We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (couldcanwould, etc.)
  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

for + noun

We can also use for + noun to express purpose.
  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?

Clauses of reason

When we want to explain the reason why something happened or why someone did something, we use a clause of reason introduced by a conjunction (assincebecause) or a noun phrase introduced by because ofdue toowing to, or on account of.


We use because before a clause (subject + verb). It can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence (at the end is more common). A comma is used when the clause of reason is at the beginning of the sentence.
  • We didn’t go because it was raining heavily. 
  • Because the event was cancelled, they lost their deposits. 


We use as and since in a very similar way to because. They are followed by subject + verb and can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. However, as and since are more formal expressions, and more common in written than in spoken English.
  • The government urged people to stay indoors since/as more rain is forecast for the entire weekend.
  • As/Since the roads were blocked, the victims had to be rescued by helicopter. 

because of

We use because of before a noun.
  • The concert was postponed because of the heavy rain. 

due to

Due to means ‘because of’ although it is more formal. We also use due to before a noun.
  • The event was cancelled due to lack of interest. 
  • I couldn’t enjoy the meal due to their constant arguing. 

Click here to do some exercises and see the whole explanation with charts.

16 May 2018

Homework for 2nd Year Intermediate Level students

Conditional Clauses

Time Clauses

Reported Speech

Relative Clauses

Modal Verbs

Verb Forms

Narrative Tenses

  Exercise 1
  Exercise 2 

Listening Comprehension

Reading Comprehension


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Click here to do the activity.

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